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105. UJJAIN in Madhya pradesh was the capital of Avanti (6th century B.C.) and Chandragupta II, and was one of the provincial capitals of the Mauryas. It was the modal point of two ancient trade routes, one from Kausambui and the other from Mathura, its chief exports being agate, jasper and carnelian. It has an observatory built by Maharaja Savai Jai Sing II (1686-1743).

106. URAIYUR also known as Aragaru,on the river Kavari, was for some time the Sangam chola capital, was famous for its pearls and muslin, the latter being as think as the slough of the snake.

107. UTTARMERUR is a village of Tamil Nadu where nearly two hundred inscriptions belonging to Pallava and Chola periods indicating the nature and working of the village administration have been found. According to Uttarmerur inscriptions Pallava and Chola villages enjoyed maximum of autonomy inadministrative matters with popular village assemblies like the Ur, Sabha, Mahasabha or Nagaram looking after the village affains without any interference from royal officers. The village of Uttarmerur was divided in thirty wards.

108. VATSGULMA modern Basim in the Ahoka district in the South of Ajanta, was the capital of a Junior branch of the Vakatakas who are mentioned in the Ajanta cave inscriptiona No. XVI.

109. VIDISA modern Besnagar, near Bhilsa, in East Malwa, was a part of Sunga empire with Agnimitra, the sone of Pushyamitra Sunga as viceroy. The Vidisa guild of ivory worker was famous for these workers carved the stone sculpture on the gateways and railings surrounding the Sanchi Stupa. It indicates commercial prosperity. It was also famous for the Garuda Pillar Inscription which testified its erection by a Greak ambassabor named Heliodorus in honour of Vasudeva Krishna, the god of the Bhagavatas.

110. VAISHALI indentified with modern Basali in Muzaffarpur district of Bihar, was apulent and prosperous town in the Buddhist period. The second Buddhist Councial was held here. It served as the capital of lichchavis. Later, Ajatsatru annexed it to this kingdom. Ambapali, the famous charming courtesan, lived here and hosted to the Buddha at one time and later she became a convert to Buddhism.

111. VENGI (in Andhra Pradesh) one of the south Indian kingdoms probably joined the Sangha conquered by Samudragupta. It was the capital of the eastern Chalukyas, and was disputed between the Chalukyas and the Pallavas.

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